Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi was a Christian humanist concerned about the debilitating effects of the Industrial Revolution on the traditional family. He attempted to use the school as a tool for self-fulfillment but, politically astute, sought to balance freedom with the role of the citizen. His work was influenced by the Enlightenment and romanticism.
Politically and romantically, Pestalozzi championed the rights of the poor and their children, clearly a theme in his most noted work Leonard and Gertrude (1781). In this work, he emphasized the importance of creating an environment of safety and emotional security. Pestalozzi put Rousseau’s Emile (1762) into practice. He accepted Rousseau’s principle of the innate goodness of children and his idea that education could serve as the foundation for social reform. Like Comenius and Rousseau, Pestalozzi grounded learning in the senses and was attentive to the culture and local environment of the children. This formed the basis for his object lessons, characterized by his attention to form, number, and name.
Pestalozzi’s pedagogical approach attracted many, including common school reformers Henry Barnard and Horace Mann, who were intrigued by his moral yet compassionate nurturing school. Pestalozzi’s early work in the United States was planted by William Maclure and Joseph Neef, later influencing Edward Sheldon at Oswego, New York. Pestalozzi’s interest in occupations as educational is clearly evident in the work of progressive educators, including John Dewey and William H. Kilpatrick.
- Gutek, G. (1999). Pestalozzi and education. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.
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