Most of the time were using oral communication, while primarily referring to is spoken verbal communication, typically relies on words, visual aids and non-verbal element to support the conveyance of the meaning. Oral communication includes discussion, speeches, presentation, and interpersonal communication. In face to face communication the body language and voice tonality plays a significant role and may have a greater impact on the listener than the intended content of the spoken words.
Model of Communication
- Linear Model – its one way process in which one person acts one another person acts on another person, transmission model because it assume that communication is transmitted in a straight forward manner from sender to receiver.
- Interactive modal – this is interactive communication model is way to represent how two people communicate. One person, the sender, wants to send a piece of information, the message. This speaker uses a communication channel. Such as email or face to face conversation, to second person, the receiver. Sometimes noise, a term referring to any distraction, will compromise the message. Once the receiver has the message, he will send feedback, letting the sender know whether the message was transmitted well and how the receiver feels about it. This communication of both people, the sender and receiver, is influenced by their individual experiences, culture, and knowledge. This is called their field of experience.
- Transactional model – that sees communication or negotiation of meaning in two more parties responding to their environment and each of others.
Here is a scene with which we are all familiar: Abu says or does something that Ali interprets as an insult or an attack. Ali retaliate in words or action. Abu, having meant no harm in the first place, now sees Ali’s actions or words as an unprovoked attack. The situation can quickly escalate even though there was no real reason for a fight to begin in the first place. What has happened here is not a failure to communicate, but a failure to understand communication. More often than not, that is what lies at the root of conflicts, although in intractable conflicts there may be many other factors as well.
Functions of Interpersonal Communication
This is engage in communication with another person; we seek to gain information about them. It is also give off information through a wide variety of verbal and nonverbal cues.
- Gaining Information – One reason is engage in interpersonal communication is so that it can gain knowledge about another individual. It’s to gain information about others so that we can interact with them more effectively. It can better predict how they will think, feel, and act if know who they are. We gain this information passively, by observing them; actively, by having others engage them; or interactively, by engaging them ourselves. Self-disclosure is often used to get information from another person.
- Context of Understanding- We also engage in interpersonal communication to helps to better understand what someone says in a given context. The words are say can mean very different things depending on how they are said or in what context. Content Messages refer to the surface level meaning of a message. Relationship Messages refer to how a message is said. The two are sent simultaneously, but each affects the meaning assigned to the communication. Interpersonal communication helps us understand each other better.
- Establishing Identity- Another reason is engage in interpersonal communication is to establish an identity. These roles are playing in the relationships helps to establish identity. So too does the face, the public self-image that present to others. Both roles and face are constructed based on how we interact with others.
Interpersonal Communication Strategies
One of the factors is misunderstanding of ideas or intent can also occur when there is an absence of communication between two groups. When two parties are not speaking, there is no way to clarify positions, intentions, or past actions; rumors can spread unchecked. Sometimes both parties make a concerted effort to communicate as clearly as possible, but cultural differences or language barriers obstruct clear understanding.
Misunderstandings can be arising because of different personal communication styles. One person will ask a lot of questions to show interest, while another person will find that to be disrespectful.
Misunderstanding can be avoided by using common language to communication. Some persons interpersonal style could be annoying to another person, due to differential in communication style and language. Culture plays an important role as well in this matter. Most common language than are used to communicate now days is English.
Language is considered to be a bridge that connects people. It is believed that language can be considered as a postal service. The concept of communication is considered to be simple. For example the person A, would send a message to the receiver, in this case, person B. and the person be would receive the message and react or respond. Initial that person would become a sender. Misunderstandings are inevitable in case of misinterpretation of a message. It could be either the speaker did not correctly send the message or the listener erred in receiving it, or both.
However most communication does not end up with misunderstanding, but misconception of the message that was sent could arise. In case where, what A thinks as perfect, could be perfect for B. This leads to differential of ideas. It would take repetitive attempts to send out the exact message.
Small Group Communication
The main objective in forming a group is to achieve a common goal. With the implication of group, many thoughts can be shared. Whereas people say in a group, “none of us are smarter than all of us”. In a group, the sharing could be considered valuable the achieve the goal.
Function of Small Group Communication
- Social Groups: Some groups are predominantly social in their orientation, while all groups will have both social and task dimensions. For example families and social clubs, can be categorized as predominantly social. These groups provide for our safety and solidarity needs and they help us develop self-esteem.
- Work Groups: In a work group, the task dimension is emphasized. Work groups function to complete a particular task, in such case to achieve the goal. This group members pool their expertise to achieve the goal. All group members perform the same activity and pool their results at the end. An example of this would be plan for future programs.
- Conjunctive Work Group: Group members play their parts to achieve the goal. Every group member must complete their task in order to achieve the goal. An example of this would be an assembly line, in which each worker performs tasks that together build a completed machine.
Members meet to determine the best alternative for a problem or issue. There are two types of disjunctive tasks:
- Judgment Task: Group members must get ominous decision in order to achieve the goal. Mostly achieved by having discussion for the solution options
- Decision making task: Group members must choose the best solution by discussion.
Group of friends are formed spontaneously, where it don’t even share the same goal. Meanwhile other groups are contrived where it was formed with a specific goal.
Small Group Communication-Strategies
The solution, method that required and the way to achieve can be the main topic in a small group communication. Thus certain person should play a certain role in order to spark the necessary start for an effective discussion. The role initiator is very crucial in beginning of communication.
Mass media is the major tool for public communication. The sending of message is made a breeze. The sender can reach many receivers unconditionally through mass media such as television, radio and most happening is internet.
This sort of communication requires authenticated material. Materials must be genuine, and must be authorized by respected parties prior to sending. Studies in public communication cover how the information is sent and received through and for by society. Society includes consumers, government officials, community organizations, employees, investors and the media. How to assist their organizations in structuring public opinion and in addressing the organization’s social responsibilities is one of the major fields in public communication studies. They learn how to frame messages and communication strategies in ways that mutually benefit their organizations and the public.
Function of Public Communication
To send message that relevant to public need which target major public group. Most commonly applied by mass media is advertisement for products and services. Government bodies use public communication in sending crucial information regarding public issues. Receiver commonly will get the picture and the description of what is new and current state of condition up to date. Majorly receivers react towards what received with prejudice.
Strategies of Public Communication
One of the newest communication strategies of PR firms is social media. This encompasses sites such as Twitter, Face book, websites and blogs. In today’s wired world, it is deemed essential to have a social media presence. PR professionals assist in creating and maintaining a social media presence that is in accordance with the style and message (brand) of you or your business.
Managing the Media
PR professionals develop relations with media, including print, television and radio, to ensure the message that is being delivered is in accordance with your brand. They use all these resources to create and maintain your brand image.
Developing and maintaining employee relations is a key communication strategy of PR firms. They do this in a multitude of ways: focus groups, meetings, newsletters and activities. Managing employee relations is a large part of maintaining a brand’s image consistently.
This is when a PR firm plays an important role in managing the public perception of you or your firm. It is not hard to think of current examples of professional athletes or companies that are probably using a PR firm for crisis management.
Public engagements, whether press conferences or speaking engagements, are an often-used tool of PR firms. This is one of the few ways the client interfaces directly with the public as a way of managing its image.
Basically the oral communication process, interpersonal communication, small group communication and public communication are used to communicate in everywhere we likes. This would interpret which areas that we communicate and listen.